I continue to write about the models of engines that Vitya did for the report "Power of Water" at the city competition "Step into Science". Last time I showed a model of a steam engine. This time it will be a working model of a pneumohydraulic rocket that flies, thanks
reactive force. Its flight is based on the fact that a jet of water is displaced from the rocket body under the pressure of compressed air, forcing the rocket to move in the opposite direction.
|Launcher diagram for a water rocket (drawing Viti)|
We make a support that will hold the tube in an upright position. To do this, we fasten plastic clips on a metal corner, bought in a building materials store. With the help of them you can put and remove the tube from the support.
We fasten a corner for stability on a bed - a piece of a board.
This is what the finished launcher looks like.
And so we will put on it our rocket-bottle. Only before starting it will need to be filled with water. Here, detachable clips will be very handy. The tube can be removed, inserted into the bottle, not afraid to spill water, put on a stronger cork and then put it back in place. You can not fasten the clips - everything is holding well.
To launch a rocket, you need to go into an empty space, away from windows and cars. (We did it at the school stadium). A rocket flies very high, above trees and nine-story buildings. And the trajectory of her flight is almost unpredictable. In order to fix this, you can stick stabilizers on the bottle, but we decided not to bother with this. Due to the same unpredictability of the flight path, the person who will directly launch the rocket must be dressed taking into account the fact that the rocket in flight pours a stream of water, and it may well get on it.
Pour water into the rocket. It should fill the bottle by about one third - this is the optimal ratio of water to air.
We stick the tube into the bottle, putting it tightly on the cork.
We connect the bicycle pump.
We fasten the tube with the bottle attached to it with clips to the support.
Now you need to quickly and quickly pump air into the bottle. And after 10-20 seconds it will break under pressure and fly up. The flight does not last long, but it can always be repeated again by simply pouring a new portion of water into the bottle.
I post this post to the Zhenya Yasnoy blog on the Boys World Gallery.
How to make a rocket out of a plastic bottle - step by step instructions
1. Take the plug and insert the needle valve of the pump into it. The needle should pierce the plug completely. If the needle is shorter, cut off from the cork the part necessary for the needle to pass through.
2. Glue ribs and a cardboard cone to the bottle, as shown in the photo. You got a rocket.
3. Fill the bottle one quarter with water and close the cork tightly.
4. Take the bottle and connect the needle valve to the pump. It should be noted that in order for the bottle to hold steady on the table (or other surface on which you will conduct the experiment), its fins must be made powerful enough.
5. Ask all spectators to move to a safe distance and start pumping air into the bottle using a pump. After a few seconds, the bottle will fly up with force.
Only an adult can conduct an experiment! Make sure that all spectators are at a safe distance during the experiment. Do not experiment in places where a take-off bottle could damage surrounding objects. Stay alert: the bottle takes off suddenly and with great force - you can see this by watching our video. Do not get closer to the bottle after you start to pump air, even if outwardly it seems to you that nothing is happening.
A bit of science
This information is useful for explaining to children the principle of operation of real rockets after the experiment. So, pressure can launch a rocket made from a regular plastic bottle. Space rockets work in a similar way, but instead of water pouring out during take-off from our rocket, a process of fuel combustion occurs inside space rockets with the release of a large amount of hot gas from nozzles.
The force of gas pressure makes the rocket take off, literally pushing it off the ground. This is the so-called first stage of the rocket. It is the most powerful, since it is faced with the task of overcoming Earth's gravity and raising a rocket into the air. And already in the air, the speed of the rocket develop the second and third stages.
Do-it-yourself children's swing for a summer residence
Photo gallery: How to make a rocket with your own hands - from paper, cardboard, bottles, matches, foil - diagrams, workshops - Making a flying model of a space rocket from improvised materials
A cool mock rocket or a real flying rocket can be done at home without any problems. For the work you can use any materials at hand: paper, cardboard, plastic bottles, matches and foil. Depending on the chosen master class, you can get a beautiful toy or a full-fledged model copy of a real rocket. All descriptions are supplemented by step-by-step photos and video instructions, which greatly simplifies the assembly of products. You can learn more about how to make a rocket with your own hands and make it fly in the master classes for adults, adolescents and children set out below.
How to make a rocket with your own hands so that it flies - a step-by-step master class with a description
The simplest flying rocket can be made at home. The following master class describes how to make a rocket out of paper that literally takes 5-10 minutes. Work will be within the reach of both the adult and the teenager. A simple instruction on how to make a rocket out of paper will not require the use of special components: you can assemble it from improvised materials.
How to make a rocket out of ordinary cardboard with your own hands - scheme and description of work
Cool rocket from cardboard can make even a child. Such a layout is perfect for decorating a room. How to make a rocket out of cardboard with your own hands according to the scheme is described in the following workshop with step-by-step photos.
How to make a rocket so that it takes off from a bottle - a phased master class
An original and highly flying rocket can be assembled from improvised materials right at home. But its launch must be carried out in an open area to comply with safety conditions. A step-by-step photo instruction will tell you how to make a rocket out of a bottle without much difficulty.
How to make a model of a space rocket with your own hands - an interesting workshop with a photo
Many space exploration fans would like to have a real mockup of the original rocket at home. Using some materials and observing the assembly rules, you can make a copy of Proton-M. How to make a model of a rocket and how to color it correctly is indicated in the next master class.
Step-by-step video master class on making a model of a rocket from matches and foil
The proposed master class tells how to make a rocket out of foil and matches in literally half a minute. It is recommended to carry out such excrement outdoors, and not indoors.
The original model of a space rocket or a simplified layout, the toy can be easily made at home. In the proposed workshops with photo and video instructions, you can learn how to make a rocket with your own hands from paper, cardboard, foil and matches, plastic bottles. Each idea attracts with its novelty and clarity. In addition, children or adolescents, along with adults according to the above descriptions, will be able to make a rocket that flies out of simple materials at hand.
A plastic space rocket will be a great toy for your child. Moreover, it is in no way inferior to the purchased one: it is equally bright and durable. Moreover, the very process of creating a rocket will be an exciting game. Making such a toy is easy enough.
If you do not have time to play with a child, and you need to take something with him, then this fake is an excellent way out of the situation. The rocket will be made in three colors: red, blue and silver. These colors harmonize well. But you can choose others, it all depends on the imagination.
To create a rocket you will need:
- Plastic bottle (small),
- Acrylic paint (red),
- Color cardboard,
- Felt-tip pen
1. First of all, you need to make a rocket nose. To do this, turn the blue cardboard into a cone. Glue the ends. We put the finished part on the bottle.
2. Then, it should be noted where the porthole will be located. To do this, draw a felt-tip pen a round window in the upper zone of the bottle.
3. On the back of the blue cardboard we draw the wings of the rocket. There should be three of them. Then cut them out.
4. At the bottom of the bottle we make slots.
5. Make a slot. After that, you need to paint the bottle with red acrylic. Make sure that there are no stained places left. Porthole do not need to be painted over.
6. Now insert the wings into the slots.
7. Paint the legs of the rocket black. The figure will turn out to be more voluminous.
8. The toy is almost ready. It remains to give it a more elegant look with brilliant foil edging. We make the winding in the following places on the bottle.
Equipment is not always required to create cool things. You can even make a real rocket out of a plastic bottle. In this case, you do not need gunpowder or other chemical elements. And even a primary school student will understand how to make a rocket out of a bottle with his own hands. The main thing is to be careful. After all, even such a harmless toy can be dangerous if used improperly.
How to make a rocket out of a plastic bottle?
To get started, take a bottle. Then, unscrew the lid. Instead of a cover it is necessary to insert a rubber stopper in which there should be a union (nipple) for the pump.
This fitting can be glued into the cork. At the same time, the rubber stopper itself should not be fixed too tightly in the neck of the bottle.
Then, you should fill your shell with one third of the water and insert the cork with the fitting. Next, put the pump on the fitting and turn the structure over.
As a launch platform, you can use anything you want. The easiest option is an old plastic bucket with a hole in the middle.
Install the rocket on the platform (cork down). Start pumping air into the bottle. When the pressure is high, the rubber stopper will squeeze out of the bottle and a stream of water will lift the rocket into the air.
This is the simplest missile. It is by this principle that real rockets take off.
Powerful do-it-yourself rocket from a bottle
To increase the lifting force, you need to work on the cork of the bottle.
- Take the garden hose adapter,
- Insert one end into the cork and glue,
- In the second horse, glue the nipple for the pump,
- Screw the structure onto the bottle.
Thus, instead of a rubber stopper, you will have a threaded connection. It will create more powerful pressure. So the rocket will fly higher. But do not tighten the plug too much. Otherwise, your structure may burst due to pressure. And the cork itself will remain in place.
Styling a rocket
To make a rocket look beautiful from a bottle, you can make a tip for it. Just fold the cardboard in the form of a cone and glue such a design to the bottom of the bottle, which serves as a nose.
You can also create rocket wings. Make some wings from cardboard and stick them with tape. So you get a real space ship.
To make the rocket cone streamlined, you can cut off the neck of another bottle and cut the thread out of it. Glue a tennis ball into the hole. Glue this cone to the rocket, and it will become completely streamlined.
Despite the apparent simplicity, such a device carries a risk of injury. You need:
- Do not launch a rocket in crowded places,
- Stand as far as possible from it at startup,
- Check the stability of the structure before starting,
- Do not build up strong pressure. Do a couple of small experiments.
There are many bottle rockets on the Internet that are children's toys and certainly don't fly anywhere. But why make them if you can create a real rocket launcher.
The main thing is to observe safety measures and calculate everything exactly. Otherwise, your fun can cause you serious injury.
The air-hydraulic model is one of the simplest in rocket modeling. It is characterized by simplicity of design and operation. This model makes it possible to conduct many different experiments and, most importantly, get acquainted with the action of a jet engine. An air-hydraulic rocket can be easily built by yourself.
Such a simple missile can be made very quickly from improvised materials. First you need to decide what size the rocket will be. The base of its body will be a simple plastic bottle of soda. Depending on the volume of the bottle, the flight characteristics of our future rocket will vary. For example, 0.5 liter, although it will be small in size, but it will also take off at a low 10-15 meters. The most optimal size is a bottle with a volume of 1.5 to 2 liters, you can certainly take a five-liter vessel, but it will be too powerful for us, not to fly to the moon. To start, you will also need the main tool - a pump, it is better if it is automobile and with a device for measuring pressure - a manometer.
The main unit in the rocket will be a valve; the effectiveness of our entire rocket will depend on it. With it, air is forced into the bottle and held in place. Take a punctured or working chamber from any bicycle and cut out its “nipple”, the part to which we connect the pump. We also need the usual cork from bottles of wine or champagne, but since there are so many different shapes and sizes, the main selection criterion for us there will be a length of at least 30 mm and a diameter so that the cork enters the neck of the bottle with an interference fit of 2/3 of its length. Now, in the found cork, make a hole of such a diameter so that the “nipple” enters with force into it. It is better to drill a hole in two steps, first with a thin drill, and then with a drill of the desired diameter and most importantly do it gently with little effort. Next, we connect the “nipple” and the cork together, after dropping a little “super glue” into the cork hole to prevent air from seeping out of the bottle. The last part in the valve will be the platform, which serves to attach the valve to the launch pad. It must be made of durable material, for example metal or fiberglass with a thickness of 2-3 mm and a size of 100x20 mm. After you have made 3 holes for the mount and nipples in it, you can glue the cork to it, and it is better to use epoxy glue for a more durable connection. As a result, the main thing is that part of the nipple protrudes above the platform by about 8-11 mm, otherwise there will be nothing to connect the pump to.
Proceeded to the rocket itself. She for its manufacture will need two bottles of 1.5 liters, a ball from table tennis, colored tape. One bottle can be set aside for now, and with the second we perform the operation. Carefully cut off the top of the bottle so that the total length is approximately 100 mm. Next, saw off the threaded head from this part. As a result, we got a head fairing, but that's not all. Since there is a hole in the middle, it needs to be closed and in this case a prepared ball will be needed. Take a whole bottle, turn it upside down, put a ball on top and put on a head fairing. In total, it turned out that the ball protrudes slightly beyond the circumference of the bottle, it will serve as an element that softens the blow to the ground when descending from orbit. Now you need to decorate the rockets a little, since the bottles are transparent, then in flight the rocket will be poorly visible and for this, where there is a smooth cylindrical surface, we wrap it with colored tape. So the cherished rocket turned out in the end, although it looks more like a ballistic intercontinental missile. You can of course make stabilizers to resemble a standard rocket, but they will not affect the flight in any way on this shell. The stabilizers in the amount of four pieces are easy to make from cardboard from under household appliances, cutting them out small in area. You can glue them to the rocket body using glue liquid nails or other similar.
Now let's start making the launch pad. To do this, we need an even plywood sheet with a thickness of 5-7 mm cut out by a square with sides 250 mm long. In the center, first we fix the previously made platform with the valve, choose the distance between the holes arbitrarily, the distance between the two platforms should be at least 60 mm and for this we use bolts with a diameter of 4 or 5 mm and a length of at least 80 mm, respectively. Further, in order to fix the rocket on the launch pad, you will need to make a holder with a launching device, which consists of two corners, two nails and 4 bolts with fastening. У уголка с одной стороны сверлим два отверстия под крепеж к стартовой площадке, расстояние между отверстиями, как и в уголке, так и в основной площадке должны быть одинаковы, например 30 мм. С другой стороны обоих уголков также нужно сделать два отверстия диаметром 5 мм под два больших гвоздя таким же диаметром, но расстояние между отверстиями должно быть такое, чтобы расстояние между самими гвоздями было от 28 до 30 мм. Когда всё собрано, следует отрегулировать высоту положения фиксирующих гвоздей.To do this, install the bottle on the valve, as in combat mode, with great effort, and after that you need to choose the height of the corners so that the nails easily slide in the holes themselves and between the neck of the bottle. Nails also serve as a descent mechanism, but you still need to make a special plate connecting them for the rope, which we will pull to launch the rocket. The final element in the launch pad will be the legs for which you need to drill 4 holes in all corners of the pad and fasten 4 small bolts with a length of 30 to 50 mm, they serve to fix the launch pad in the ground.
The rocket must be filled with water in a strictly specified amount, this is 1/3 of the total length of the entire bottle. It is easy to make sure by experience that it’s not worth filling in too much water, as well as too little, since in the first case there is too little space for air, and in the second too much. The engine thrust in these cases will be very weak, and the operating time will be short. When the valve opens, compressed air begins to eject water through the nozzle, resulting in thrust, and the rocket develops an appropriate speed (about 12 m / s). It should be borne in mind that the size of the thrust is also affected by the cross-sectional area of the nozzle. The thrust that decreases as water is thrown out will allow the rocket to reach a height of 30-50 m.
Several test launches in light or moderate winds allow us to conclude that with a tight connection between the valve and the bottle, proper filling with water and vertical installation of the model at the start, it can reach a height of about 50 m. Installing the rocket at an angle of 60 ° leads to a decrease in height lift, however, the flight range increases. With more gentle paths, either the model starts will fail, or the flight range will be small. A model launched without water will be very light and will rise only 2 - 5 m. Launches of air-hydraulic models are best done in calm weather. As a result of the tests, it is easy to notice that the model has good stability and a tendency to orient itself against the wind, both in the presence of traction and after the end of engine operation. The flight time of the model from start to landing, depending on the altitude reached, is 5 - 7 seconds.
By the way, air-hydraulic missiles can also be multi-stage, that is, consist of several bottles or even five or more. In general, a record for the flight altitude of such a rocket is as much as 600 meters, not every standard model of a rocket can reach such a height. At the same time, they can raise a significant payload, for example, some testers install cameras or mini video cameras and successfully carry out aerial photography.
So, when everything is ready, you can go out and make the first launches. Together with the rocket and equipment, you still need to take additional fuel - a few bottles of water. Such missiles can be launched anywhere, in the schoolyard, in a forest clearing, the main thing is that within a radius of 20 meters there should not be any buildings that impede combat flight. At the center of our training ground, set the launch pad so that the mounted rocket is strictly vertical. Next, we connect the pump to the valve, fill the rocket with the water of the prescribed volume and quickly install it on the launch pad, so that the valve fits very tightly into the neck of the bottle. Now cock the trigger, insert two nails into the holes, fixing them. It’s better to launch an air-hydraulic rocket together, one will pull the rope - start, and the other to pump air into the bottle. The length of the rope should be about 10-15 meters, this distance is enough to prevent the launching person from spraying fountain water from the rocket, but you will not envy the one who will operate the pump, he has very good chances to take a cool shower with an unusual flight of a rocket. Since our rocket consists of a bottle with a volume of 1.5 liters, it should be inflated to a pressure of 4 to 5 atmospheres, you can try more, but the valve itself and the connection to the pump will not withstand such a high pressure, and there will be a leak. When pumping, you can not be afraid that something can happen to the bottle, because it can withstand 30 to 40 atmospheres according to technical data. Air injection lasts approximately 30 seconds. When the desired pressure in the bottle is reached, the launch team is given the “Start” command, which pulls the rope with a sharp movement and after a moment the rocket rushes into the sky, performing a combat mission. rocket trajectory. For the next launch, it remains only to fill the fuel from the reserve and again pump air into the engine compartment. Such a rocket can well entertain on a sunny summer day.
WE WILL NEED:
1. Prepare a craft bottle. A bottle with curly curves at the top will not work for a rocket. It should be a bottle with an even conical narrowing at the top.
2. Remove the label from the bottle, wash the bottle inside and out, dry.
3. Acrylic paint the bottle. Any color you like is suitable: blue, white, green, red, orange.
In the middle, leave a small circle - a porthole - unpainted. Paint the bottom of the bottle with black acrylic paint (strip 5-8 cm wide).
4. Dry the bottle well. To do this, leave it to dry near the battery or on the windowsill for several hours.
5. Cut a large semicircle from the cardboard. Its radius should be greater than the height of the bottle from the narrowing to the cap. From this semicircle, make a cone with glue. The base of this cone should tightly wrap around the main part of the bottle.
6. Apply glue at the base of the cone from the inside, put the cone on the bottle and press the base of the cone to glue it.
7. Cut 2-3 strips from the foil and decorate the rocket with them: one strip can be wrapped around the base of the cardboard cone, others under the porthole or above it. Connect the ends of the foil strips with glue.
8. From the cardboard cut out 6 parts of this shape. These are fuel tanks. In our craft, they also serve as coasters. They need 3 pieces, but we do 6 to glue them in pairs - so they will be thicker and stronger. Do not forget that half of the details should be a mirror image of the first half.
9. At the bottom of the bottle with a clerical knife, make 3 longitudinal slots and insert “tanks” in them.
4. Cut out the stabilizers
For the rocket to fly smoothly, it must be correctly installed. The easiest way is to make a stabilizer (legs) from another plastic bottle. To do this, the bottle is cut in half, straightened. Then, on this flat surface, draw a contour of the stabilizer, provide a backlog for attaching to the body of the rocket.
Now cut the stabilizer along the contour and glue it to the rocket with tape.
The figure also shows the weighted rocket body, this author used the cropped part of another bottle with a small bolt in the cap. In fact, there is full scope for imagination and experimentation, you can accurately determine the optimal load in the head of your rocket only after several launches. The shape of the legs can also be different, for example, you can use the top of the plastic bottle, attach plastic legs to it, and put the rocket inside:
As for the launch pad, here you can also do plenty. Someone prepares complex structures with a guiding axis, someone cuts special devices out of wood, and someone simply fixes the rocket on a level surface with improvised means.
In principle, the simplest water rocket after the described actions is already ready for you. You just need to take a lot of water with you, a pump and an assistant: he will hold the rocket with the cork down and press the valve with his hands while you pump air into the pump. It is recommended to pump 3-6 atmospheres into a 1.5 liter bottle (in this sense, a car pump is more convenient), then disconnect the hose and release the cork at the expense of “three to four”. Rocket Launched! It flies quite high and spectacularly, and most importantly - the whole process is not life threatening. True, an assistant usually has to take a forced shower out of “fuel” :)
If you liked this venture and would like to experiment further, we recommend reading, for example, here, there are more complex missiles with real launchers. Here is a picture with step-by-step instructions, though in English, but everything is quite accessible drawn. Well, if you liked the video and wanted to repeat something like that, welcome to the rocket modeling club: serious uncles use several bottles of compressed air at launch, and only one contains water.