In nature, orchids grow on trees or use rocks and boulders as a support. Tropical species usually accumulate moisture in the roots and leaves. Those that grow in temperate regions or subtropics use storage nodules for this. Their leaves die off with the onset of autumn and reappear in spring.
Phalaenopsis refers to the monopodial type of orchids - it has only one growth point. There are many colors of petals. Leaves can be of different shapes and colors, including strokes and spots.
Plants that are sold in stores are already adapted to home conditions.. When choosing a flower, pay attention that its roots are elastic, fleshy, rich green in color and hold tightly to the ground.
Phalaenopsis prefers bright but diffused light without direct sunlight that can burn the leaves. The southern window is not recommended for him; western or eastern is more suitable. Some people prefer to keep orchids in the back of the room, but with extra lighting.
Please note: for the orchid to bloom, its daylight must be at least 12 hours. Phalaenopsis has the ability to turn towards the light, and so that the plant does not roll and warp, once every few weeks the pot needs to be turned the other side. You can not do this only during the formation of buds.
Temperature and humidity
In summer, the optimum temperature for the orchid is + 24 ... + 26 ° C. For some time, the flower can last even at higher temperatures, up to +32 ° C, but when it is in such conditions for a long time, it will begin to hurt (the leaves will fade and the flowers will fall).
In winter, at least for two weeks, you need to lower the temperature to + 15 ... + 17 ° C, otherwise the flower will not form buds. However, stronger cooling cannot be allowed for a long time, this can lead to the death of the plant.
The optimum air humidity is 70–80%. If the room is too dry, the flower can be placed on a pallet with wet pebbles or placed next to the water containers. In order not to dry the leaves, the orchid should be kept away from heating appliances.
Caring for phalaenopsis is not difficult, but requires knowledge of specific rules.
In summer, the orchid is watered every two to three days. Please note: in this case, excess moisture is more dangerous than its small deficit. The substrate should dry out, otherwise the roots will suffocate from a lack of oxygen. If the room has dry air, you can add pieces of sphagnum moss that retains moisture to the mixture.
You can understand that the time has come for watering by the silver-gray roots or the lightness of the pot. You can also push the upper pieces of the substrate or examine it through the transparent walls. It is recommended not to pour water from above, but to immerse the pot in a container with water for a third and leave it for 2-3 hours. The roots should turn green.
This procedure should be carried out in the morning so that excess moisture can drain in a day. Water should be soft, settled or filtered, slightly warmer than room temperature. In spring and autumn, watering is reduced to once a week, in winter - to once every two weeks.
It is advisable to feed the flower often, but little by little, in the summer on average once every two weeks. In winter, one feeding a month is enough. Some gardeners prefer not to fertilize the plant at all during the dormant period. Top dressing is applied using water-soluble fertilizers, and before that, the substrate must be watered or soaked so as not to burn the roots.
Of the fertilizers, Kemira-Lux is recommended, but the concentration should be half that recommended. If phalaenopsis had problems with the roots or had to be removed, top dressing is done by spraying on a leaf.
Sometimes before sale in the substrate add fertilizers of long exposure. They look like small balls, gradually dissolving with each watering. In this case, new dressings do not add another 2-3 months after the balls finally disappear.
Disease and Pest Prevention
In order to prevent the emergence of diseases, first of all, it is necessary to provide the plant with the correct conditions of maintenance, maintain the recommended temperature and humidity level. Overfilling can lead to rotting of the roots. In this case, all affected areas are cut off, and the orchid is provided with greenhouse conditions.
If dark spots appear on the leaves, this means the appearance of bacterial rot. In such cases, the affected leaves are cut to a healthy tissue, and the plant is treated with a fungicide, such as Fundazole.
Maintaining the correct humidity is also the prevention of the appearance of a spider mite. If the pest nevertheless attacked the plant, phalaenopsis should be bathed in warm water and treated with acaricides.
When a scabbard or mealybug worms appear, pests are removed with a cotton swab. After that, the leaves are wiped with a weak alcohol or soap solution and left for half an hour, then washed and treated with “Aktara”.
You can get rid of aphids and thrips by washing them with soapy water. The Astra remedy will also help: spraying is carried out three times, with interruptions of five days.
Pot or flower pot?
This kind of orchids can be grown in special pots for orchids (transparent or perforated) wooden baskets hanging flower pots for orchids or on blocks. The method of planting phalaenopsis depends on the conditions of detention and the preferences of the grower.
With high humidity, the plant will grow perfectly on a block or in a basket. Under such conditions, the phalaenopsis basket is ideal because of good ventilation and quick drying.
With low humidity in the room, it is better to prefer planting in a pot to reduce the frequency of watering. How to care for an orchid in a pot, we will describe further. Also, some gardeners put experiments on growing orchids in a closed system.
Read more about growing in a closed system here.
Phalaenopsis transplant is carried out after purchase, as well as necessarywhen:
- the substrate has lost its structure, decomposed, or is very salted,
- the plant has outgrown the pot,
- soil contaminated by pests or diseases,
- phalaenopsis needs resuscitation.
Read more about transplantation here.
Substrate for planting should be sufficiently moisture-resistant, but breathable. When choosing a substrate for transplantation, you must also take into account the conditions of detention. The easiest way is to buy ready-made soil for orchids, but this option is not always optimal. After all, changing the universal substrate to the conditions of a particular room is extremely difficult:
- So, at high humidity and soft water for irrigation, only pine bark can be used as a substrate,
- if a indoor air dry, it’s better to add components to the bark that will hold moisture in the pot, for example, sphagnum moss and coconut chips,
- if a water contains hardness salts, it is recommended to add charcoal to the substrate, which will absorb excess salts.
You can learn more about landing from this article.
How she looks like
Like the whole orchid family, phalaenopsis refers to epiphytes. This professional word means a simple thing: such plants do not develop on the ground, but on the branches, trunks of other plants. Moreover, they are not parasites (it would be hard to imagine that a beautiful orchid can be a parasite!), They feed on their own.
The stem of our beauty is short and thick, the leaves are wide, leathery, fleshy, arranged in pairs. Most often there are few leaves, 2-3 pairs.
Peduncles, as well as aerial roots, grow from the sinuses at the base of the leaves. Moreover, it cannot be said that the former rush up, and the latter down. The fact is that clinging to branches, phalaenopsis in natural conditions often grow at right angles, or even “upside down”. The roots of these plants are thick, strong, sometimes in diameter they can be compared with a pencil. This is not surprising - the task of the roots is to gain a foothold on the branch of the host tree, and only secondarily is to provide the flower with food.
The decoration of the phalaenopsis is its irresistible flowers! On a long, stout peduncle, they can be several at the same time, sometimes even up to a hundred! Flowers are placed in spike-shaped inflorescences, where old and very young specimens located at the tip of the spike are simultaneously observed. It is characteristic for a single phalaenopsis flower that its lower lip has a more saturated color than the other petals.
Blooming phalaenopsis can please the viewer with many shades, but white, pink and purple flowers predominate. Recently, many commercial hybrids of this genus of orchids have been created, which have a large gamut in color.
To understand the features of phalaenopsis care, you need to know where these flowers originated. Their homeland is the warm moist forests of Southeast Asia, as well as the islands of the Indian Ocean, Australia. It should be noted that some of the phalaenopsis species have adapted to life on the slopes of high mountains, where temperatures are relatively low. This explains the unpretentiousness of phalaenopsis, their plasticity, which allowed the flower to "agree" with the adverse conditions of our apartments.
That's all Phalaenopsis needs.
Since phalaenopsis always grow in the shade of trees, they put up with a lack of light, which almost always happens in city apartments. Moreover, these flowers do not like direct sunlight, so on the southern windowsills, especially balconies, they need to be shaded, protected from light. An excellent “place of residence” for the “butterfly” will be window sills of windows facing east or west. Moreover, many gardeners succeed in successfully maintaining phalaenopsis even in the interior of the apartment, provided that the room itself is bright.
The flower tolerates some lack of moisture, which is not typical for tropical plants. If the humidity is very low, phalaenopsis will not die, but will grow large leaves, cease to bloom. By the way, even in this version, it looks quite attractive. Experts believe that the humidity for this plant should be in the range from 40 to 60%. Although the flowers become large and bright, still with humidity close to 70%
Like all sissy flowers, phalaenopsis loves the temperature of the apartment to be no lower than + 18 ° C, although at times, especially in winter, during the period of relative rest, it can drop to + 15 ° C and even (for a short time!) To 13 ° C. This reflects the plasticity of the plant, which was mentioned above. It is noteworthy that phalaenopsis does not tolerate heat well, especially when the air is dry and warms above + 35ºС. In this case, the plant can lose flowers, and the leaves will lose turgor. This should be taken into account for those lovers who have phalaenopsis in summer on the southern balconies!
A feature of many orchids, including phalaenopsis, is that they like a temporary drop in temperature to + 16 + 18ºС (especially night ones). In autumn, when new flower buds are laid, this is especially important. It is desirable that such a cool "weather" lasted at least a month.
The presence of constant drafts is bad for the condition of the flower, although the air is not cold. After all - we recall - these plants in nature are in the forest, under the cover of dense foliage, which does not allow the winds to roam.
How to care for a beautiful “butterfly”
The information provided suggests that every grower who does not possess any super-knowledge and skills can create the proper living conditions for this orchid. The same can be said about the care of the phalaenopsis.
These flowers, like other orchids, grow in special substrates, significantly different from the usual flower land. We will talk about substrates later; now it should be noted that such a potted mixture requires a not-so-standard watering scheme.
Most often, watering phalaenopsis at home is carried out by completely immersing the pot in a container of water. When this is not possible, watering should be done so that between the waterings the entire substrate, from top to bottom, has time to dry. In the case of a transparent pot (and this is extremely useful), it is very easy to determine the moment of drying: in the wet state, the roots of the plant are greenish, drying out, they become pale gray, almost white.
With opaque walls of the container, the degree of drying is determined either with a finger, penetrating deep into the substrate, or by the weight of the pot (when dry mix it becomes light). However, a little accustomed to your pet, the grower can easily determine when the next watering is required.
Important! Moisten the substrate in time after it dries. If phalaenopsis has been left without water for a long time, it will not die, but it will surely lose its leaves, and will subsequently recover for a long time.
Water for the orchid should be soft, warm, it should not linger for a long time on the leaves, in order to avoid the appearance of gray spots. From time to time, phalaenopsis should be placed under a plentiful, warm shower, imitating tropical rain. Water flowing through the substrate leaches the accumulated salts from it. After such a shower, the leaves should be thoroughly wiped with a soft cloth.
Speaking about top dressing of phalaenopsis, again it is necessary to recall its origin. It has already been mentioned that all epiphytes, including orchids, have a mixed diet. This means that the roots of the plant carry only part of the nutrients, serving mainly as a support. Orchids get most of the nutrients along with the rains, absorbing water in wide leaves. That is why foliar top dressing is important for phalaenopsis.
They should be produced on a sheet (on both sides), as well as spraying exposed aerial roots. It is not allowed to get the nutrient solution on the flower petals if the plant is already blooming. However, this advice is universal, applies to all home flowers. Foliar feeding of orchids is best done in the evening or on a cloudy day, making sure that the nutrient solution does not remain at the growth point - it can rot. A popular fertilizer for this type of top dressing is the spray "Doctor FOLI - Orchid."
All this does not mean that the flower cannot be fed through the roots. Orchids do not need a lot of nutrients, so fertilizers make them special, light. They can be easily found in any flower shop, most often in liquid form (for example, "Pocon"). If for some reason it was not possible to find special orchid mixtures, you can use the usual complex for indoor flowers. Most importantly, their concentration must be halved, or even tripled, compared to the one indicated on the package!
It is best to fertilize the phalaenopsis by completely immersing the pot in a container of warm water, where fertilizers have already been dissolved. Let the flower stay in this position for about half an hour.
When phalaenopsis only began to grow after a period of rest, it is better to give it fertilizers with a high nitrogen content, if flower buds have appeared, feeding with a “bias” in phosphorus and potassium is useful. After the beginning of flowering, it is better not to carry out root dressing, otherwise the flowers that appear will quickly fall off.
Important! You can not feed this flower at rest, or immediately after transplantation.
When feeding Phalaenopsis, it is always useful to follow one rule: this flower is much better than underfed than overfed. Categorically it is impossible to apply both root and foliar top dressing! And yet - if there is not much experience, you should not “offer” organic matter to Phalaenopsis at all, limiting yourself to mineral fertilizers.
Phalaenopsis in nature does not get used to heavy rains. But, surprisingly, they do not like moisture that has accumulated on leaves for a long time in cups of flowers. The fact is that in the crown of trees there is constantly air movement, moisture dries quickly on the flower. In indoor conditions, these plants should be sprayed with a very fine spray, almost fog, otherwise the spots may rot on the leaves, and the growth point located in the leaf outlet may even rot.
Regarding the frequency of spraying - there are different opinions. Of course, if possible, phalaenopsis should be irrigated daily, not even once. But in the case of more rare spraying, as practice shows, this plant will also develop well.
Usually pruning phalaenopsis is reduced to the removal or shortening of the peduncle. These plants bloom for a long time, sometimes for months, while several flowering waves can change on the same peduncle.
To understand when the time for pruning has come, you should examine the tip of the peduncle. It is resilient and green - the peduncle is alive, and flowers can bloom on it again. If the tip has lost the turgor, wrinkled, acquired a brown tint - it should be cut off.
Обрезку производят или в самом низу цветоноса (если он усох полностью), или оставляют примерно одну треть длины, если остаётся зелёным (на оставшейся части могут впоследствии развиться новые цветы). Живой цветонос обрезают острым секатором или ножом, примерно на полсантиметра выше почки. Подрезая ближе, можно погубить верхнюю почку. The slice must be treated with powdered charcoal, phytosporin, or even iodine.
In the absence of regular pruning, the flower stalks become thin, the plant takes on an ugly, sprawling appearance. Having cut off the peduncle, phalaenopsis needs to be given a certain period of rest: water less, do not feed, wait until new leaves or peduncles begin to grow. It is after pruning that many flower growers transplant plants.
Moving to “another apartment”
Perhaps transplantation is the most difficult and crucial step in caring for phalaenopsis. Many lovers even try to avoid it without having to transplant their pet for years. But one should not be afraid: the transplant, although a difficult action, is not so much that even an inexperienced person does not perform it. It is only necessary to strictly observe a few simple rules.
So, it is useful to divide the entire process of phalaenopsis transplantation at home into separate stages:
- Finding out the reasons for the transplant and its timing,
- Selection of capacity and substrate,
- Direct transplant
- Plant care after transplantation.
Finding out the reasons for the transplant. There may be several:
- there are many roots in the pot, they are clearly cramped in the existing volume,
- there are few roots in the pot, the plant feels bad,
- Phalaenopsis has not been transplanted for a long time,
- through the transparent walls it’s clear that many of the roots have darkened, or even died out,
- Phalaenopsis stubbornly does not want to bloom, although all the necessary conditions for this have been created.
Regarding the timing - it has already been noted that often the orchid is transplanted after flowering. More often, a transplant is performed in the spring, when the plant woke up and went into growth (especially the roots).
Selection of capacity and substrate. Traditionally, orchids are planted in transparent plastic pots. This is also important for phalaenopsis, because their roots, like leaves, are able to participate in photosynthesis. However, the condition of "transparency" is not always observed. It is very important that the pots have large holes in the bottom, orchids do not tolerate stagnation of water near the roots.
Recently, information has begun to spread that transparent containers promote the formation of algae on the roots, which harm the plant by extracting nutrients from the roots. It should be noted that a similar pattern is observed in those pots where the substrate does not dry well between waterings.
The volume of the new pot should be such that all the roots fit easily into it, while there is free space along the walls (about a centimeter wide). Root volume should be estimated only after inspection and necessary pruning!
In the absence of proper experience, it is better to use a ready-made orchid substrate for transplanting, sold in flower shops. But there are times when there is no such substrate, or you want to experiment the grower yourself (after all, flower lovers are creative people!). Then you can risk making the mixture with your own hands. There are a lot of recipes for such a mixture, but the basic principles are as follows:
- a third of the volume should be fresh sphagnum moss,
- the second third is wood bark, it would be good to pine, crushed into medium-sized fractions,
- the remaining third is a mixture of half-ripe leaves, finely chopped fern roots, peat, turf. If something is missing (for example, fern) - it does not matter, you can add leaves.
Thus, the resulting mixture will be very loose, easily passing water. All components should be mixed, and the day before planting, pour boiling water for half an hour to eliminate all possible bacteria and rot. Drain the boiling water, place the mixture on a sieve. At the time of transplant, it should be moist, but not wet.
Direct transplant. Carefully remove the orchid from the old pot.
Important! The roots of the phalaenopsis are very fragile, easily broken and long restored. You need to work with them very carefully.
Inspect the earthen lump, remove the old substrate from the roots as much as possible. If it works out, you need to delete it altogether. All parts of the roots that seem dead, sick, cause suspicion to trim carefully. Cut root sections with powdered charcoal or other antibacterial drugs. It is impossible to use iodine, as in the case with pruning of a peduncle!
Pour boiling water over a new pot; you can wash it with laundry soap and wipe dry. At the bottom, pour a good layer of drainage. Lay the roots, squeezing them slightly, and thoroughly pouring with a substrate. It is necessary that the flower be planted at about the same depth as it used to grow. It is especially important to follow the growth point, it should in no case be bombarded with a mixture!
Plant care after transplantation. When the roots and substrate evenly fill the new pot, the planting is completed, and the phalaenopsis should provide a period of rest. It must be shaded from direct sunlight, placed in a room where it is not very warm (about + 20 + 22ºС). Since the substrate was moist, watering should be done only after it dries, most often after 4-5 days. In no case, before the start of active growth, do not feed!
And how to multiply them?
There are many ways to breed Phalaenopsis at home. All of them are based on the property of the plant that its sleeping buds on the stem and peduncle are capable of producing not only flower buds, but also vegetative buds, from which daughter child plants develop.
The most common breeding methods that are used even by relatively inexperienced amateurs.
Plant division by children
Little children appear on the peduncle, and in the axils of the leaves. After waiting for a couple of leaves and several small air roots to grow on the baby, it can be carefully separated with the help of a sharp knife from the mother plant and transplanted into a separate pot. Children can appear on the phalaenopsis by themselves, but their development can be further stimulated. To do this, cut off the upper part of the adult plant, so that it has at least a pair of developed leaves and several aerial roots. This cut-off part is planted in a separate pot, and on the remaining, "decapitated" part, new babies soon appear, who later also are transplanted.
Important! Such an operation can only be carried out on an absolutely healthy, strong mother plant!
Division by cuttings of shoots
One of the lateral shoots (if any on the plant) is cut into pieces so as to leave 2-3 axillary buds on each handle. Typically, the length of such cuttings will be within 10-15 cm. Cuttings are laid horizontally on wet sand or sphagnum, covered with a transparent film. An improvised greenhouse with high humidity will turn out. It should be aired from time to time, letting in fresh air. If the room is warm, soon sleeping kidneys should begin to develop into small children. When they have two leaves and a rosette rosette, the children are transplanted.
Division of stalks of cuttings
In fact, the method resembles the previous one, only they cut into cuttings not a shoot, but a living peduncle that has already faded. Each segment must have at least one kidney. Pieces of the peduncle are placed in a greenhouse, similar to how described above. When the baby develops on the peduncle, she is transplanted.
Phalaenopsis - flowering champion
Orchids are recognized beauties in the world of flowers! Phalaenopsis is no exception. Its bright, expressive inflorescences delight the owner's eye for a long time. For the sake of these beautiful flowers and contain orchids in apartments.
Flowering of phalaenopsis at home lasts a long time, sometimes for months, or even up to six months. Most often, flowers appear in the second half of spring, but often these plants have two or even three periods of flowering! In this sense, phalaenopsis is one of the champions.
But it often happens that a florist takes care of his pet, gives him attention and care, and phalaenopsis does not bloom. The reasons can be very different, consider the most common.
Oddly enough, but the lack of flowering in this "tropical butterfly" is often due to ... too good living conditions. If phalaenopsis came to us from Asia, it's time to recall the wise statement of the East: “Be blessed, obstacles, we grow up with you!” These words are intended for man, but they are also true for flowers.
The fact is that for flowering orchids need some stress, some inconvenience in life. It is very important that a noticeable daily temperature drop is observed in the room, with a slope on a cool night. Also, the roots of the plant must at times experience a slight lack of moisture. If the owner keeps his pet all the time in a uniformly warm apartment, constantly watering, feeding him all the time, phalaenopsis will “fatten” by growing lush leaves and raising children, but will not want to bloom.
When you think about how to make phalaenopsis bloom at home, think about lighting. Often the reason for the lack of flowering is its lack. For the formation of flowers, Phalaenopsis needs to “see the light” at least 12 hours a day. If sunlight is not enough, you should provide illumination with special lamps, or even ordinary fluorescent lamps.
And further. Phalaenopsis, as befits butterflies, is "fearful." During flowering, you can not touch it, turn it relative to the light source, generally change anything in living conditions. Remember: when your orchid blooms, you can only admire it!
And if all the conditions mentioned in the article were fulfilled by the florist, then most likely, luck will await him, and one day the phalaenopsis will present the master with a miracle in the form of the first flower that has opened. The second, the third will follow him ...
After the flowering period, you should wait a bit, and then decide what to do with the peduncle. If it begins to dry out, it should be completely cut off, leaving only a few centimeters below. If it remains green, alive, then flowers will appear on it again. In this case, the peduncle is usually cut, as already mentioned, into two-thirds, leaving a few buds below. It’s not worth trimming the flower stalk: in this case, the plant will become sloppy, elongated.
Home Care Phalaenopsis Orchid
Important for the development of the plant is the creation of conditions for the proper development of the root system. We need transparent pots and a special substrate. There are no trifles in the contents of the orchid, only proper agricultural technology will create a picturesque indoor garden:
Location for flower pot - the shaded side of the apartment. Direct sunlight and the southern window of the orchid are not suitable. It is possible to place the plant far from the window, but with backlight. The length of the day is critical. Phalaenopsis orchid blooms only under lighting lasting at least 12 hours.
Content temperature when caring for an orchid, phalaenopsis at home depends on the time of year. In the summer, when the flower arrows strike with their beauty, the shadow should be 18-25 0 C. At a higher temperature, the flowers can quickly begin to crumble. In winter, if flowering is not expected and the plant is resting, coolness is needed, about 15 degrees.
During the rest period, when flower buds are laid, the night temperature should be 4-5 degrees lower than the daytime.
How to water orchids phalaenopsis at home? Fleshy roots nourish the plant, but with stagnant moisture, they can rot. The roots should be in an ultralight substrate and not only supply the plant with nutrients, but also produce chlorophyll under the influence of light penetrating through the transparent walls of the vessel. It is important to saturate the substrate with moisture after drying by immersion for 30 minutes. At the same time, you should not wet the leaves. It is possible to determine whether the soil in the pot has dried out by weight, by an indicator of humidity, each one finds his own way of control. With a lack of moisture, the plant will drop flowers, with excess, it will rot.
Microclimate for a flower - Butterflies are created in all available ways. Orchid does not require regular spraying, the accumulation of water in the axils of the leaves can cause rotting. Humidity of 40-45% is considered optimal for the plant.
Soil for phalaenopsis orchid selected with the expectation that the plant is an epiphyte. The substrate is prepared from a mixture of bark of coniferous trees, charcoal, sphagnum moss and shells. The bark is taken from old fallen trees, soft, after boiling. Pebbles are added to the lower part, like drainage, with the addition of bark and coal. Acidity should be 5.5-6.0. To keep the acidic medium, a little peat is added to the substrate, or it is poured with acidified lemon juice with water. But it is better to transplant in two to three years and not use acidifiers.
For prolonged flowering when caring for the Phalaenopsis orchid, you should not change the place of the pot and maintain a uniform temperature in the room. Fertilizers for orchids have a specific composition and concentration, they must be used once a month in the recommended amount. Root dressing for a healthy flower is preferred.
Leaving leaves is a must. It is necessary to wash them, then wipe so that there are no drying droplets left. If the old lower leaves began to dry out, they need to be cut. Also observe the state of aerial roots by removing damaged parts. The place of the cut must be sprinkled with charcoal or cinnamon powder.
How to transplant a Phalaenopsis orchid at home?
The roots of the orchid are not long, not branched, it is important that there are a lot of them, and they held the plant firmly in the soil. The bush should not swing. In order for the root system to be healthy, the orchid needs to be transplanted correctly after it fades.
Transplant stages include obligatory operations:
- remove the plant from the container with minimal damage,
- soak a lump of earth and wash it off with a stream of water,
- remove damaged roots, sprinkle cut points with charcoal dust or cinnamon powder,
- cutting dry leaves and arrows, you need to leave hemp,
- dry the flower 3 hours before planting.
Boil the composition of the soil and leave it in water until it cools. Filter the solid part, rinse on a sieve with hot water and put it to dry until it is loose. Treat the drainage composition in the same way. In the center, place the prepared dried plant and sprinkle the roots with a substrate, without deepening the outlet along the neck. Pour with warm water and drain the filtrate. Condensed and settled soil bring to a normal level of backfill. No moisture should remain on the leaves and sinuses after transplantation.
The transplant operation is necessary in order not to deplete the mineral supply of food, not to increase acidity and not to use peat and acidified water, which will poison the plant. You can see the Phalaenopsis orchid transplant at home in the video, which will help you not to make mistakes.
Methods of propagation of orchids at home
The seeds of the phalaenopsis orchid are propagated under special conditions. At home, you can get a new copy of the embryo with aerial roots formed on the faded arrow. This is the easiest way to get a new plant.
There is another, more time-consuming method - the cuttings of faded arrows. Cut arrows are cut into fragments, each of which contains a sleeping kidney. Sprouting cuttings in a substrate in a humid environment, not every cuttings will give a new baby.
The method of block culture - the propagation of Phalaenopsis orchids at home, as an epiphyte, on a wooden base is applicable if you can create a moist air environment. On a piece of vine, a tree branch attaches moss or a similar material that retains moisture. Phalaenopsis orchid is attached to this surface. So that the roots located in the upper layer do not dry out, the environment must be moist.
Orchid Diseases and Pests
If the orchid is not properly looked after, then pest colonization and plant diseases are inevitable. Non-communicable diseases of orchids arise from improper care, then the weakened plant is affected by insects and fungal and bacterial ailments. When caring for the Phalaenopsis orchid at home, the first signal of trouble may be yellowing leaves.
Yellowness indicates an improper temperature, lack of light or moisture. But the worst thing will be steaming or prolonged hypothermia of the plant. Vegetative buds perish and the plant perishes. Elongated leaves signal a lack of light and become vulnerable.
Viral diseases include all kinds of small spotting and mosaic. They are incurable. Therefore, if a specialist has diagnosed a viral disease, the plant must be destroyed by burning. Viruses spread insects, and inevitably the disease will switch to other flowers.
Bacterial spotting manifests itself as dark spots, softened leaves and roots. Sore spots are cut to a healthy tissue, cauterized with iodine, sprinkled with coal dust. In advanced cases, the leaves and roots are treated with fungicides.
Anthracosis, powdery mildew, rust are fungal diseases transmitted by spores or soil. Preventing these diseases is easier than curing. To do this, ventilate the room, avoid excessive moisture, do not leave water droplets on the leaves. Various rot appear when there is a violation of the temperature regime, especially with the greenhouse effect. Sooty fungus develops on the sweet secretions of insect pests.
Ослабленное растение может заселить тля, мучнистый червец. При должном уходе мучнистый червец не заведётся. Тлю нужно смывать мыльным раствором. После обработки листья помыть мягкой водой и осушить. Для уничтожения насекомых пользоваться, только рекомендованными для орхидей препаратами.
Болезни и вредители
Вредители не слишком досаждают фаленопсисам. If they already appear, then it is usually worms, scale insects, aphids or spider mites. Usually they attack those plants that are weakened by improper care or contained in inappropriate conditions.
Given that phalaenopsis does not have many leaves, pests can be tried to destroy without chemistry by regularly treating the plant manually with a soapy solution using a toothbrush. If this is problematic, you should spray the phalaenopsis with a phytoderm, actar, some acaricide (if the mite attacked). Processing is carried out at least 2-3 times, with an interval of several days. After each treatment, be sure to ensure that moisture does not remain at the growth point.
Among the common diseases of phalaenopsis, the most common types of rot are gray, brown, fusarium, etc. These are extremely dangerous diseases! They usually appear due to improper care, especially with waterlogging of the substrate, plentiful and frequent spraying, and non-compliance with the temperature regime.
In the case when the rot has not yet hit the plant very much, it is necessary to carefully cut off the blackened, affected areas of the leaves to a healthy tissue, treating the slices with copper-containing preparations (for example, Bordeaux mixture). Do the same with the roots. Soak the roots and substrate with a 0.2% solution of Fundazole (it is generally better to replace the substrate with a new one). Repeat the procedure at least one more time, in two weeks.
If the defeat by rot, especially black, is already substantial, it is better to destroy the plant so that the disease does not spread to other orchids, if any. It is also better to throw out the pot, or thoroughly clean it with a strong disinfectant.
In a large genus of phalaenopsis, experts have about 40 species. As a rule, they are known only to botanists, and in home floriculture hybrids are common, of which there are hundreds of varieties. Hybrids, unlike the “real” phalaenopsis, are more adapted for keeping in apartments, moreover, their flowers are often larger and brighter than the flowers of the “natural” counterparts.
The vast majority of indoor hybrids are created by specialists on the basis of two types: " F. pleasant, or amabilis"And"F. Schiller". The first has large, up to 10 cm. Flowers, exuding a pleasant smell, they remain fresh for a long time. The color is motley, the most unexpected combinations are found. The second has a huge, up to 1m. long, peduncle, which hosts hundreds of small flowers, smelling like lilacs.
Among other popular species, several can be noted.
Horse phalaenopsis. The flowers are small, up to 2 cm in diameter, have a pinkish tint. May bloom all year. Leaves are relatively small.
Phalaenopsis gigantea. Huge, sometimes meter, leaves. The flowers are small, there are many, smell like citrus. Color can be the most varied.
Phalaenopsis Luddemann. Spring-summer flowering prevails. Flowers up to 7cm. in diameter, smell pleasant, pink and purple.
Conditions of detention
Conditions of detention include: temperature, humidity and lighting. The optimal balance of these factors will help maintain a healthy plant.
Phalaenopsis in nature grows in tropical rainforests, which means it does not have a rest period and prefers warm content throughout the year:
- the optimum temperature is 18-25 ° C,
- temperatures below 10 ° C and above 30 ° C are poorly tolerated by plants, especially for a long time,
- the temperature for an orchid in winter can be reduced by several degrees, especially if there is no backlight.
High humidity for phalaenopsis is optional, because most hybrids that are sold in stores are bred and adapted specifically for indoor use.
Too low humidity can be compensated by more frequent watering and periodic spraying., but with high humidity you will have to provide good ventilation to avoid decay of the roots and leaves of the plant.
Read more about the need for spraying phalaenopsis in this article.
Phalaenopsis is shade tolerant. Bright light, especially direct sunlight, is not only unnecessary, but also harmful to the plant. Several hours in the scorching sun can lead to a loss of decorative effect. Optimal is considered moderate lighting., but it will grow and bloom even on the north window and under completely artificial lighting.
You can get more information about growing phalaenopsis at home from this article.
Watering and feeding
This item requires the most attention, because have their own nuances and rules for watering orchids. Contrary to the prevailing stereotype that orchids need frequent watering, the risk of dying from the bay is ten times higher than from the lack of moisture.
Phalaenopsis, thanks to the moisture stored in the leaves, can withstand several weeks without watering, while a few weeks with “wet feet” will necessarily lead to rotting of the roots.
Photo of wet and dry roots.
The substrate must necessarily dry between waterings.and water should not remain in the pan for more than 15 minutes. To correctly assess the condition of the substrate, you need to look at the roots and the pot. If perspiration appears on the pot, the substrate has not dried out yet. Wet roots have a deep green color, and dry - silver.
When watering, you should not just pour water from a watering can into a pan or pot. It is better to completely immerse the pot in a basin with warm water for 10-15 minutesso that the substrate absorbs enough moisture. Then drain excess water and only then return the plant to a permanent place.
The plant responds well to watering with a warm showermaximally simulating natural conditions. However, after such a bath, you need to remove water from the outlet, so as not to cause decay of the growth point.
Read how to water Phalaenopsis often in this article.
Fertilizers can be added 2-3 times a month to water for irrigation. It is advisable to use special fertilizers for orchids and breed them 2 times stronger than indicated on the package. In some cases, foliar top dressing can be applied.
Read more about top dressing here.
Traditional pruning methods for phalaenopsis are unacceptable, and not needed. Orchid grows very slowly, forming no more than 4-5 new leaves per year, and the stem grows 1-3 cm in length. Cutting old and dying leaves is also not recommended. As a rule, the plant takes all of the nutrients from them and the leaf falls off over time.
The need for full or partial pruning of leaves arises only if if the sheet is damaged by any disease or broken. In this case, the entire damaged area is cut to a healthy tissue, and the cut is treated with crushed coal.
During transplantation, it may be necessary to prune the roots. but only dry, rotten or broken roots are removed. As in the case of leaves, they cut off everything to a healthy tissue, and the slice is processed.
After flowering of the phalaenopsis, it is recommended to slightly prune the peduncle. Only the dried tip is removed to the first healthy kidney.
Old plants that have lost leaves at the bottom of the trunk, can be rejuvenated. To do this, you need to grow roots on the bare part.
Root formation can be stimulated by periodic spraying of the substrate. If this is inconvenient, then the barrel can be wrapped with sphagnum.
When the rudiments of young roots appear, the lower part of the plant with old roots can be cut off and used for propagation.
Read more about how to rejuvenate the plant here.
It is worth going to this point only if a “common language” with the plant is found, that is, phalaenopsis is actively growing new leaves and blooming regularly, and the number of flowers and peduncles is increasing each time.
At home most often phalaenopsis is propagated by vegetative methods:
- separation of root daughter sockets,
- children formed from peduncles,
- division of an adult plant,
- peduncle cuttings.
Before asking yourself how to plant Phalaenopsis, you need to examine the plant and see if it has daughter sockets, children, or other additional growth points. And only then choose the appropriate method of reproduction.
Baby on the flower stalk.
Read more about breeding methods here.
From this article you will learn how to properly plant Phalaenopsis.
Seed propagation outside special laboratories is problematic and does not always guarantee an exact copy of the mother plant. The offspring will be numerous and diverse.
Phalaenopsis seeds are dusty and unable to germinate on their own without special medium or symbiotic mushrooms.
You can get all the information about pollination of phalaenopsis from this article. In this article you can learn how to get Phalaenopsis seeds.
Read more about seed propagation here.
Usually, special problems with the flowering of healthy plants does not arise, but sometimes it happens that large and well-growing specimens for several years do not form peduncles. The reason for this behavior of the plant may be:
- too regular and thorough care,
- the substrate is not allowed to dry between waterings,
- excessive fertilizer
- constant temperature day and night.
Despite the relative stability of natural conditions, even in the tropics there is a slight difference in day and night temperatures, and the rainy season is replaced by a relatively dry period. It is during the dry period that plants bloom.
Therefore, to stimulate flowering, sometimes for a while it’s enough just to forget about the flower, creating extreme conditions for it, which will become an incentive for flowering.
Where is better to place?
It’s important to immediately find a permanent placewhere it is better to put an orchid, do not twist or move it several times a week or even a day. The plant will feel good even on the north window. The main thing is to avoid direct sunlight and drafts.
Phalaenopsis blooms beautifully even on the north window.
How to water and fertilize?
When watering, do not use cold and very hard water. Water should not linger in a pot or pan, and the substrate should dry between waterings. Do not use fertilizers with a high nitrogen content, and fertilizers for orchids to breed stronger than recommended.
You can learn more about the rules and methods of watering here.
Mistakes in leaving most often can lead to loss of roots, lack of leaf turgor, premature falling of flowers and buds. Such plants will need resuscitation.
With loss of leaf turgor Due to untimely watering, periodic bathing under well warm water and an increase in air humidity can save the situation.
With partial or complete loss of roots it is necessary to replace the old substrate, temporarily refuse to water the pot and replace it by spraying the surface of the substrate. In the complete absence of roots, you can put the outlet in a bowl with wet moss.
To fertilize and water such flowers will have to be on the sheet.
You can grow roots on wet moss.
You will learn more about resuscitation of phalaenopsis from this article. In this article you will find complete information on how to grow the roots of the plant.
Care for diseased plants
Resuscitation can also include caring for sick flowers. However, if we are talking about the defeat of the plant by diseases and pests, then it is necessary to carry out processing with special preparations and contain such an instance separately from other plants until complete recovery.
Quarantine is also recommended phalaenopsis, which were recently purchased, because in the store with a large cluster of plants, the probability of infection with disease and pests is high.
About how to properly care for plants after purchase, read this article.
How to understand when it is time to water?
If the orchid grows in a transparent hill, then pay attention to the color of the roots.
For beginners, when transplanting, place a wooden skewer or a long sliver in the center of the pot. Before watering, you need to stretch and look at its condition.
If the skewer is wet, then watering should be postponed.
How to wake phalaenopsis?
Sometimes the plant freezes and stops growing. Often this phenomenon occurs due to adverse conditions, for example in winter with a lack of light and lower temperatures. When conditions improve, phalaenopsis again begins to form new leaves.
Such rest periods are quite normal. The flower cannot grow continuously and requires little respite in order to gain strength to grow new roots and leaves.
What should be the care during flowering?
Care during flowering is not much different from normal daily care.
but you need to try to move the orchid less and twist around its axis during blooming, as well as avoiding drafts and moisture on the flowers.
It is possible to slightly prolong flowering with the help of special fertilizers.
Phalaenopsis is an easy-to-care indoor plant. However, when keeping the orchid, you should not treat it like traditional indoor flowers, because the main guarantee of a healthy and plentifully flowering plant is compliance with the peculiarities and subtleties of care.
This plant requires a special attitude, but remember the basic rules that phalaenopsis love, even a novice can do.