Such a diagnosis is not a sentence. It is important to understand in time that something has gone wrong.
Why is the incidence of autism increasing? It's simple - the doctors have learned to better diagnose and detect it. There are many reasons: genetic “breakdowns”, environmental degradation, features of the course of pregnancy and childbirth in the mother, metabolic disturbances.
Or maybe outgrow?
The child’s unusual behavior is not necessarily an autistic symptom. But it is worth paying attention to a specialist (the sooner the better).
In autistic spectrum disorders, it is early intervention that gives the best result. There are sensitive (susceptible) periods in the development of a child - they are most favorable for mastering skills and mental properties appropriate to age. It is important not to miss them.
There are a lot of signs of autism and they appear in each child in their own way. This complicates the diagnosis, but fThere are several signs that are inherent in all children with such a disorder:
- communication disorders (verbal and non-verbal communication with the help of eyes, facial expressions or gestures),
- socialization and motor (motor) stereotypes.
The latter is an aimless repetition of some movements, actions. For example, a child shakes an object for a long time in his face, makes strange rotations with his hands, runs around the room for hours or swings back and forth on a chair, closing his eyes and ears.
Autistic children so calm themselves, moving away from unpleasant external influences. This behavior can be in healthy children and adults. Often during strong excitement we make some unconscious movements - twist the pencil in the hand, wind the hair around the finger, “crunch” with the fingers or tap rhythmically with the foot.
But the stereotypes of children with autism are not as harmless as subtle obsessive actions in healthy people. Often they not only look strange and annoy others, but also harm an autistic child: they deprive him of a mental tone and “energy” for development.
What are the criteria for the diagnosis of the smallest?
Over the past few years and in 2018, one in every 68 children has been diagnosed with autism. Boys are more at risk: 1 to 42, while only 1 out of 190 girls is diagnosed. Interestingly, in 2013, 1 out of 88 children fell ill, and in 2008, a prevalence of 1: 150 was recorded.
Several types of the disease fall under the classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but they are united in that the first signs (oddities in behavior) appear in early childhood.
A study by Warren Jones from the Marcus Autism Center in the United States showed that it was possible to competently suggest autism almost immediately after birth. The technique consists in tracking the ability to focus the eyes in infants 1-3 months (then periodically monitored up to 2 years). Since this is an American study, the equipment involved was recorded that recorded minimal discrepancies.
A person alone will not be able to track signs of deviation from the norm, but the authors gave valuable advice to parents. “Basically, newborns look into the eyes of those who approach them, but after 1-1.5 months, the concentration in the eyes of all children decreases. After 2 months, we observe how neurotypical children again begin to concentrate on the eyes of a person who attracts their attention, and those who were later diagnosed with autism continue to focus less and less on their interlocutor. During the first 6 months, we see how autistic people have less eye contact and focus on people's faces, ”the study says.
An ambitious Russian study showed another effective way to distinguish healthy children from autism patients aged 3-4 months. Investigated the health of mechanisms orientational sensitivity visual system, which in children with autism is impaired. According to Tatyana Stroganova, head of research at the Moscow State Pedagogical University, the brain of a healthy person quickly recognizes vertical and horizontal deviations using inhibitory interneurons, and one of the essential signs of autism is inhibition of inhibition. The study involved 78 children, divided into 2 groups: healthy and newborns with presumed autism.
Children were seated in front of the monitor screens, which displayed 2 pictures with lines for comparison. Flat vertical and near vertical with a slight deviation. Similarly horizontal lines: flat and with a slight slope. The study showed a significant difference between the groups. It turned out that one of the signs of autism is the inability to distinguish the angle of inclination of vertical lines. Autistic guys could not show in which direction uneven stripes deviate. It is noteworthy that when evaluating the horizontal lines there were no differences.
Any regression is a serious reason to suspect autism.
Suppose your child develops, as expected, has already begun to say “mother”, “aunt”, “give”, “am”, smiles and laughs, but suddenly he closes and you can’t get a single word out of him. All kinds of persuasions, games, the arrival of good friends do not cause a smile, the child moves away and does not make contact.
Another option - children with autism refuse to play games that require social activity, for example, “cuckoo”, “frogs”, “magpie-crow”, “bag with a surprise”, “hide and seek” or stop waving “goodbye”.
Loss of skills: babbling, speaking, gesturing, sculpting or breaking social contacts (for no reason) must be taken very seriously - this is one of the main signs of autism.
Signs of autism in children under 1 year old
A psychologist and a child are sitting at a table opposite each other - a suspicion of autism. There are several toys in front of the boy, he chose a shapeless soft animal and began to swing him near his ear with a mysterious look, as if trying to guess the contents of a Christmas present.
Meanwhile, the doctor makes notes:
- Have you noticed before that he downloaded toys? - the psychologist asks the parents.
“He shakes everything,” his mother answers.
- What else does he like to download?
- Previously, it was a nipple or any object with a ring. He put his thumb in there and rocked back and forth.
- And now he will download this toy constantly?
The psychologist offers other toys, games, makes gestures with his hands, tries to provoke a child's reaction to sounds, while continuing to take notes. Then the doctor opens the book, referring to the patient, shows the picture. The boy takes a book and shakes himself.
All children do funny things that parents can find cute or alarming. Do not attach much importance to small oddities. More importantly, what the child cannot or cannot do. He does not listen, does not look at mom and dad, does not try to make contact and share his impressions.
Some symptoms of autism in children under one year of age are misinterpreted by parents and, unfortunately, by doctors. For example, a situation where the baby seems calm, independent and undemanding. Many attribute these qualities to the concept of a “good, exemplary” child. Most likely, it is, but there is little chance that this is an early sign of autism. The criterion of “calmness and complaisance” should be taken into account when combined with other manifestations of autism or if the child has dramatically changed behavior or regresses in other areas.
Autism in newborns is manifested not by deviations in behavior, but by the absence of normal features, underdevelopment, or strangeness. Most children with autism do not respond to hugs, do not want to be picked up, do not maintain eye-to-eye contact, in general, as it may seem, do not pay attention to what is happening and are “locked in their own world”.
Nevertheless, a newborn even with severe autism can choose 1-2 people with whom he is comfortable, and provide them with a few signs of attention (this feature is also found in healthy children).
Classic signs of autism. So your child:
- doesn’t look into the eyes when it’s near (for example, while feeding), does not smile in response to a smile,
- Doesn’t respond to his name (doesn’t react in any way), Doesn’t show emotions, having heard a familiar voice,
- doesn’t follow toys or gestures, doesn’t get interested when you show something interesting,
- does not use a pointing gesture, does not wave at a farewell, even if you ask, does not use other means of communication,
- doesn’t try to get your attention, it seems that he would sit or lie until he really wants to eat,
- Does not try to copy the actions and facial expressions of other children and adults,
- She doesn’t want to play with other people, and emotions are either absent or do not correspond to the general mood and situation, “off topic”,
- Don't worry if hurt, doesn't seem to feel pain.
Characteristic autistic features in children at different ages.
|Six months (6 months)||No smile, no more warm and joyful expressions|
|9 months||Does not respond to a smile, words, the baby does not make sounds and does not change facial expression in response to changed circumstances|
|1 year (12 months)||There is no reaction when one is called by name, there is no babble and unclear, incoherent speech typical of a growing newborn|
|1-1.5 years (up to 18 months) ||Does not pronounce words, there are no reciprocating movements, for example, pointing gesture, demonstration of objects, attempt to reach an object or waving|
|2 years (24 months)||Does not independently pronounce meaningful phrases of 2-3 words (it does not count if the baby speaks memorized phrases, imitating or repeating after someone)|
Factors that attract the attention of others. I would like to ask what is wrong with a child when he:
- It seems disinterested, being near peers, does not notice other people and does not fully understand what is happening around.
- He does not know how to start a conversation with another child, offer a game or make friends.
- Cannot play games when it is necessary to pretend or use imagination, avoids group games.
- Avoids touch.
- He does not understand emotions, cannot talk about his feelings.
- Does not indicate things that interest him, does not try to share his impressions and achievements (does not show drawings).
- It seems unheard when someone starts a conversation with him.
For example, one child:
If you do not find fault, then E. is an ordinary child. He plays, runs to eat, when his name is, he does not always obey, but I manage. But the son, it seems, does not cope when he has to show himself in society. Now I'm not trying, but at 9 months I took him to the playground. I wanted to see how he would react to other children. It all ended with a wild hysteria (I don’t know if they still remember him, it seems, yes).
Now he is 1 year and 3 months old. When E. sees another person, it doesn’t matter, an adult or a child, he tenses up, looks from underneath. It is evident that he is uncomfortable and even scared. It gets worse when people try to talk to him or wait for something (for example, a reaction). It all looks like my son lives in a dysfunctional family and every day he sees strangers who do not treat him very well.
Children with autism spectrum disorders find it difficult to live in society, they are much more comfortable being alone with themselves. Surrounding is also not easy. For example, if a child has a stomach ache, he becomes more irritable and capricious, but does not indicate a source of excitement.
For example, one child:
A. never had a delay in speech development, he overcame this stage in time, but he uses speech not like everyone else. He easily says, he can convey his idea, the vocabulary is much higher than the age norm. However, at 2 years, it is difficult for him to be given coordinated phrases even from 2 words.
The child remembers fragments of the script from films and cartoons, remembers small songs completely and often sings them to fill the void in conversation. He can say “milk”, “juice”, “cup”, but he never says these words when he wants to drink. Even turning to mom and dad says a chant.
Often, children with autism start talking late, but if the baby says the first words on time, the disease will still be different from the norm.
Nonverbal Communication Issues
Newborns with autism behave atypically, even when words are not expected from them:
- Avoid eye contact.
- Facial expression does not match what is being discussed.
- They do not perceive and do not analyze changes in facial expressions, tone of voice and gestures of other people.
- Unusual reaction to representations, sounds, smells and textures. Sensitivity to loud noises and ignoring incoming and outgoing people are the most common symptoms.
- Strange posture and manner of movement, clumsiness.
- Minimum of small movements, no smoothness. It may seem that the child imitates a robot or is very cold towards others.
For example, one child:
We never look at one thing at a time when we are walking.
Although our baby is only 8 months old, we have already managed to visit museums, the philharmonic society together and just often walk around the city. There are objects that attract us, we look and discuss, and N. often turns away. Her face is as if nothing is happening at all, she is sitting at home, and alone in the room. Even if we are not only watching, another 5-10 people, the reaction is zero. True, from loud noises trembles and closes the ears. In general, if something is annoyed, it quickly gets tired, then cries and suffers.
There never was: “Mom, look at this plane” or “Dad, what are you doing?” When we talk or guests come, the expression on the face of the child rarely changes. At the same time, N. makes it possible to hold himself in his arms even to those people who are poorly known. She is afraid or dislikes only those who stand out with something (perfume, bright makeup, loud speech). It is worth such a person to approach, and our N. immediately in tears.
The most striking problems are the recognition and selection of subtle non-verbal signals. Autists at a subconscious level do not understand the principle of “take and give”, they can be tough, not show sympathy and respect for loved ones, but at the same time they are the same children as others. It is worth explaining how to behave better and why it is necessary, positive changes occur in the speed of 90% of the guys.
How does a typical autistic behave at 1 year?
Qualities of character and behavior of a child at 1 year old due to neurological problems in autism:
- Strong attachment to certain toys or objects. He plays in such a way that a healthy child would definitely not be interested (he spins the wheel of the car, disconnects and connects the parts, builds, destroys and then builds again, composes objects in a certain order).
- For half an hour, he can stare at a moving object.
- It’s hard to get used to the changes. For example, throws a tantrum if toys in the arena or furniture in the room were rearranged during his absence.
- Repeats the same actions constantly, for example, claps his hands, sways, spins around him. These are manifestations of self-stimulating behavior (incentives, stereotypes). Clinicians believe that children with autism use incentives to calm down.
For example, one child:
M. is an unusual child, and if you look at her, you will notice some oddities. Suddenly, she begins to wave her hands, like an alarmed conductor, and seems to be unable to stop. Then he puts a finger in his mouth. Sometimes he waves his hands, as if soaring. These movements are persistent and especially surprising when we go outside.
I am sitting in a cafe with friends, feeding the baby with milk taken with me, and M. spread her arms and waves them like wings. This does not prevent her from looking at her famous objects on the background of an empty wall, spitting milk and smiling periodically, in spite of no one.
She rotates, claps her fingers and hands, especially when she is very excited or tense. My friends used to ask (before the diagnosis) why my child is so strange: he walks on tiptoe, tilts his head, squinting his eyes, banging his teeth, covering his ears with his hands. Yes, my child is special, but he is mine.
It is necessary to identify autism or other developmental delays in a child under 1 year old, if only because parents need to know what causes unusual behavior so as not to get annoyed. Autists often seem "limited", do not succumb to the "classical" methods of education, can be intrusive, but all these are manifestations of the disease and have a weak connection with character.
Digestive and Digestive Disorders
In 40% of autistic children, gastrointestinal disorders are detected, and quite serious ones. Most often, lactase deficiency is diagnosed, in 10% inflammation of the mucous membrane of the esophagus. About 5% of autists suffer from chronic gastritis, colitis and / or duodenal inflammation.
Следующим симптомам в большинстве тестов на аутизм уделяется 25 % внимания, если они проявляются хронически или периодически возобновляются:
- leftover undigested food in the stool,
- intelligibility in food, categorical refusal to eat certain foods or dishes (not related to allergies or other obvious reasons).
Trouble sleeping in autistic babies, parents are harassed. Up to 6 months, this is understandable, but it will not work to accustom the regimen further. Children with autism may not notice whether it is day or night, it is difficult to lay them down, and you have to lull them more than once (wake up after 1-2 hours).
Cramps Unknown genesis is usually frightening to parents, but they indicate serious malfunctions in the structure of the brain or the functioning of the nervous system (as is the case with autism).
Some children do not feel pain, others cry from any touch, but all these are consequences pain threshold changes and one of the characteristic symptoms of autism.
What should parents do?
In 2010, it was believed that detecting autism at 2 years old was early. Doctors advised to wait until 3-4 years, this practice is observed in many cities now. Meanwhile, in many popular medical institutes and clinics, where doctors are interested in achieving success in the correction of autism, advocate for the earliest possible detection of the disease.
Up to 3 years, they are not officially diagnosed, but it is possible to put the child in a risk group indicating the detected violations and developmental delays, receive recommendations and begin correction, raising the child taking into account his alleged characteristics. If the child is only 1 year old, and the pediatric neurologist or psychologist whom you turned to, refuses to observe him or simply "does not see" the diagnosis, do not waste time. Continue to search for a doctor (it’s better to sign up for a correctional clinic) or contact the center for correctional care in your city (for free).
Autism is a disease in which a disability group is given. All major cities have foundations and organizations for parents of children with disabilities, where you can also apply. Somewhere you will be offered legal assistance, somewhere other parents will help with advice, and perhaps you will be lucky to become a member of the free treatment program.
The main thing for an autistic child is not a diagnosis, but professional help. In the event of health problems, contact specialized specialists.
List of all doctors
The early intervention is organized by the efforts of several specialists and includes the formation of socialization skills from the first months of life, the development of speech, labor and physiotherapy, and most importantly, counseling parents on how to behave with the child in order to reduce the severity of deviations from the norm to a minimum.
List of specialists:
- pediatric neurologist / psychologist / psychiatrist,
- neurologist (if you notice a cramp)
- Speech therapist,
- occupational therapist
- audiologist (for hearing impairment),
- gastroenterologist (with problems with the gastrointestinal tract),
- psychological support group or psychologist for parents.
The rehabilitation strategy for children with signs of autism helps to teach the baby to notice and properly respond to what is happening, to imitate and learn independently, to communicate, to understand what behavior is appropriate and what impulses need to be controlled.
Symptoms of autism in children under 1 year old
Autism symptoms in children under one year of age are among the criteria for early diagnosis. As a rule, the first to notice these signs is the mother. Parents react especially quickly if there is already one child in the family. Compared to a healthy older brother / sister, an autistic child looks “weird.”
Symptoms of autism in children under one year of age are (incidence):
- violation or complete absence of eye contact - 80 percent,
- the phenomenon of identity - 79 percent,
- violation of the recovery complex - 50 percent,
- pathological attitude to close relatives - 41 percent,
- pathological reaction to a new person - 21 percent,
- pathological attitude to verbal treatment - 21 percent,
- pathological attitude to physical contact - 19 percent.
This symptom is manifested in the absence of fixation of the gaze in the child or in its active avoidance. Parents notice that when trying to attract a child and establish eye contact with him, the baby actively resists this. Sometimes it is still possible to establish eye contact, but at the same time the child seems to be looking past (“look through”). The gaze can also be fixed or frozen.
The phenomenon of identity
This symptom appears when parents begin to introduce complementary foods in the diet of the child, that is, after 6 months. It manifests itself in the difficulties of introducing complementary foods - in response to new food, the child shows aggression. Difficulties appear not only in nutrition, but also in a change in the situation of the place. The kid reacts violently to the new arrangement of furniture and his toys, resists new clothes. At the same time, a certain ritual appears - he eats food in a certain order, his toys laid out in a certain pattern. Autistic children react negatively to new facilities - a hospital, nursery, kindergarten.
Violation of the revitalization complex
A violation of the revitalization complex occurs in every second autistic child at the age of one. The symptom is manifested in a weak reaction (and in a severe case, in its complete absence) to external stimuli - light, rattle sound, surrounding voices. The child reacts weakly to the mother’s voice, does not respond when she calls her. He also reacts sluggishly to a smile, does not become infected in response to an adult's smile (usually children smile in response to a smile). In children with autism, the motor component is also poorly developed - it does not begin to jump actively like other children, does not go towards the mother.
Pathological attitude to close relatives
This symptom is also most noticeable in children under one year old. It is expressed in a delay or in the absence of recognition of the mother - the child does not go towards her, does not reach for her, does not go into the arms. Also, the baby reacts weakly to mother's caresses, does not show a need for care. Sometimes this attitude can be manifested in relation to other family members, while the child has a strong attachment to the mother. In general, ambivalence (duality) is observed in relations between a child and adults. Strong attachment can be replaced by coldness and hostility.
Pathological reaction to a new person
Every fifth autistic child shows a pathological reaction to a new person. This reaction is expressed in anxiety, fear, agitation in response to the emergence of a new person. Sometimes it can be replaced by super-sociability, in which the child shows increased interest in a new person.
Pathological attitude to verbal treatment
The symptom is manifested in the absence of a reaction to verbal treatment and often mimics deafness in a child. That is why often parents first of all turn to the ENT specialist. Also, autistic children do not use gestures of confirmation or denial - they do not nod their heads, do not use gestures of greeting or goodbye.
Pathological attitude to physical contact
This symptom is expressed in hostility to physical contact - caresses, “hugs”. When trying to stroke a child or hug, he dodges. Autistic children tolerate only small doses of physical contact and are quite selective for those who exhibit them. Some children may prefer tossing or spinning.
Symptoms of autism in children under 3 years old
As the child grows and develops, the attention of parents is attracted by his speech, manner of play, type of communication with other children.
Symptoms of autism in children under 3 years of age are (incidence):
- violation of communication with children - 70 percent,
- attachment to inanimate objects - 21 percent,
- fears - 80 percent,
- violation of the sense of self-preservation - 21 percent,
- speech pathology - 69 percent,
- stereotypes - 69 percent,
- intelligence features - 72 percent,
- game features - 30 percent.
Very often, autistic children shun their peers. Ignoring communication can be either passive - the child is simply isolated from the rest of the children, and active - there appears aggressive, impulsive behavior. Sometimes the circle of friends can be limited to one friend who is a couple of years older, or a relative (brother or sister). In the general team - in a manger, on the street, at a birthday, the autist is not long, since he often prefers solitude to companies.
Attachment to inanimate objects
Another feature of behavior is attachment to inanimate objects. The attention of autistic children is most often attracted by the ornament of the carpet, some specific piece of clothing, a pattern on the wallpaper.
Autistic children also have quite unusual fears. As a rule, they are not afraid of heights or darkness, but of household noises, bright light, a certain shape of the subject. Fears are explained by increased sensitivity (hyperesthesia) of autistic children.
Fears of autistic children are:
- noise - the noise of an electric shaver, vacuum cleaner, hair dryer, water pressure, sound of an elevator,
- bright, sharp, or shiny colors in clothes,
- precipitation - water drops, snowflakes.
Violation of the sense of self-preservation
One in five autistic children shows a lack of fear. This symptom can occur since childhood, when a child hangs dangerously overboard a stroller or playpen. Older children can run out onto the carriageway, jump from a great height. Characteristic is the lack of fixing the negative experience of cuts, bruises, burns. So, an ordinary child, accidentally getting burned, avoids this item in the future. However, autistic children can “step on the same rake” many times.
Features of speech development are observed in 7 out of 10 children with autism spectrum disorder. Even in the early childhood, this is manifested in the absence of a reaction to speech - the child reacts poorly to treatment. Further, parents can note that their child prefers quiet and whispering speech. There is a lag in speech development - the first words appear later, the child does not walk, does not burst.
A child’s speech is characterized by the phenomenon of echolalia, which is expressed in the repetition of words. A child may repeat it several times to a question addressed to him. For example, to the question “how old are you?” The child answers “years, years, years.” There is also a tendency to declaration, to monologues, to very expressive speech. Attention of parents is attracted by the fact that the child begins to talk about himself in the third person (the pronoun “I” is not typical).
Most cases of autism are characterized by an initial development of speech followed by regression. So, parents say that the child who was originally talking suddenly falls silent. The vocabulary, previously consisting of a dozen words, is now limited to two or three words. Speech regression can occur at any stage. More often it is noted at the age of one and a half years, but can also be detected later at the level of phrasal speech.
Stereotypies are persistent repetitions of movements, phrases. With an autism spectrum disorder, stereotyped behavior is considered a type of self-stimulating behavior. It should be noted that healthy people also sometimes display stereotypes. For example, this is expressed in winding hair on a finger, in tapping with a pencil on a table, in passing sand through fingers. “Healthy stereotypes” differ from the pathological degree of intensity. With autism, stereotyping is observed in movement, speech, and game.
Stereotypes in autism are:
- stereotypical movements - rhythmic swaying or rocking of the body, bending the fingers, jumping, turning the head,
- stereotyped visual perceptions - pouring mosaic, turning on and off the light,
- stereotypical sound perceptions - rustling in packages, creasing and tearing paper, swinging door or window sashes,
- tactile stereotypes - pouring cereals, peas and other bulk products, transfusion of water,
- olfactory stereotypes - constant sniffing of the same objects.
Lag in intellectual development is observed in every third child with autism. Intellectual passivity, lack of focus and productive activity, inability to fix attention on something are noted.
At the same time, acceleration of intellectual development is observed in 30 percent of cases. It is expressed in the rapid development of speech, fantasies, associations, as well as in the accumulation of knowledge in some abstract areas. Autistic children are very selective in their choice of sciences - there is an increased interest in numbers, countries, and designs. Auditory memory is very developed. The breakdown of intelligent functions is observed in 10 percent of cases. It is expressed in the decay of skills in behavior, cognitive activity and previously formed speech.
This symptom is manifested either in the complete absence of the game, or in the predominance of the game alone. In the first case, the child ignores the toys - does not look at them or inspects them without interest. Often the game is limited to elementary manipulations - rolling a bead or pea, spinning a button on a thread. The game prevails alone, usually in a certain place that does not change. The child stacks his toys according to a certain principle, usually by color or shape (but not by functionality). Very often a child uses completely non-game items in his game.
Diagnosis of Autism
Diagnosis of autism includes parent complaints, medical history, and examination of the child. At an appointment with a child psychiatrist, parents first explain the reason for their visit. This may be the lack of speech in the child or her regression, aggressive behavior, fears, stereotypes. Most often, parents complain that the child does not speak or use communication as a means of communication.
Frequent complaints from parents are:
- the baby does not respond to treatment, creates the impression of a deaf child,
- the child does not look in the eyes
- missing first words, phrases, speech addressed,
- regression of speech development (when the baby already spoke, but suddenly became silent),
- slapping his cheeks, biting himself
- repeats the same words, movements,
- avoids other children, does not play with them,
- prefers privacy
- He does not like changes and reacts aggressively to them.
Examination of a child with suspected autism consists of talking with him and observing. Autistic children entering the doctor’s office often rush to the window first. Young children can hide behind a chair, a table and other furniture. Almost always, any visit to the doctor is accompanied by negative behavior, crying, tantrums. Such a child rarely enters into dialogue, often repeats the question asked by the doctor. The baby does not respond to the appeal to him, does not turn his head. Children do not show interest in toys and an offer to play, they are passive. Sometimes they may be interested in a puzzle or constructor.
Tests for identifying autistic inclinations are based on observing the child’s behavior in everyday life, his interaction with peers and parents, his attitude to toys. There are a large number of programs for self-determination of autism, but none of them give accurate results. The results of any test are only an assumption, which only a doctor can confirm or deny.
This test is the simplest among all, but its results are quite vague. Experts recommend conducting this type of verification in conjunction with other testing methods.
The test consists of two parts, the first of which involves observing the child, the second - the joint implementation of certain actions.
The questions of the first part of the test are:
- Does the kid like to sit on the lap of adults
- Does the child like parental hugs
- is he keen on children’s games,
- whether the child is in contact with his peers,
- Does it imitate certain actions or sounds when playing,
- Does the index finger use as a pointer in order to draw the attention of others to any object,
- Does the baby bring toys or other items to pay parental attention to them.
The tasks of the second part of the test are:
- Point your child at the subject, while carefully observing his reaction. Children's eyes should be directed to the indicated object, and not stop on the parent finger.
- Пронаблюдайте при совместной игре, насколько часто малыш смотрит вам в глаза.
- Предложите ребенку приготовить чай или другое блюдо в игрушечной посуде. Вызовет ли данное предложение у него заинтересованность.
- Дайте малышу кубики и попросите соорудить башню. Откликнется ли он на это предложение.
CARS (Early Childhood Autism Rating Scale)
This type of testing is the main tool for testing children whose behavior is suggestive of autism.
CARS includes 15 blocks, each of which affects a separate part of children's behavior in certain situations. For each item, 4 basic answers are offered - normal - 1 point, slightly abnormal - 2 points, moderately abnormal - 3 points, significantly abnormal - 4 points. There are also three intermediate options between each of the main answers, the value of which is estimated at 1.5 points, 2.5 points and 3.5 points, respectively. Intermediate options are necessary for cases where the parent cannot determine for example, for example, the reaction or behavior of the baby in the situation indicated in the test is slightly abnormal or moderately abnormal.
CARS Test Parameters
If the total score for this test is in the range of 15 to 30, the child is normal. With a score of 30 to 37, there is a chance of a mild or moderate degree of autism. If 37 to 60 points were scored, there is suspicion of a severe form of autism.
ICD-10 Autism Classification
There are several options for classifications of autism, which take into account the onset, manifestations and course of the disease. According to the international classification of diseases (ICD), 6 variants of autism are distinguished.
ICD classification of autism
In addition to the generally accepted classification, there is a classification proposed by the psychologist Nikolskaya in 1985. This classification takes into account the main characteristics of autism and divides it into four groups.
Classification of Autism by Nikolskaya